The N64 appears like the primary controller that requires an instruction handbook to make use of. Most other controllers are pretty intuitive, however the 3 prongs Controllers are regularly built upon subtle changes from each era, almost like evolution. However, the jump from the SNES to the N64 feels more like an...The Nintendo 64 controller (NUS-005) is the standard game controller incorporated with the Nintendo 64 . The controller for the Nintendo Sixty four used to be designed to be held in numerous other positions. It used to be designed around Super Mario 64.Anyone who is owned a Nintendo sixty four is aware of that the controller's analog joystick, or "Control Stick", is the Achilles' heel of an in a different way indestructible system. After years of play the joystick grow to be a limp, unresponsive, hollow shell of its former self. Most aftermarket controllers do not really feel fairly proper.Nintendo sixty four and Gamecube controllers are superb controllers which are fairly suitable for plenty of PC games, and of course are perfect for emulators!. The microcontroller firmware in this projet implements a typical HID joystick this means that that no special device driving force is needed.The Nintendo 64 Controller (N64): All You Ever Wanted to Know and More! My fascination with the controller for N64 started about 2 years in the past after I While I love Nintendo merchandise and the Nintendo 64 particularly, the N64 controller seems to have one chronic, reoccurring problem: the...
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Why?One of my friends sought after to play Nintendo 64 games on his PC the usage of an unique controller... so I developped an adapter for doing this. But since Gamecube controllers use a very an identical protocol, it was once simple to beef up Gamecube controllers too.
Gamecube and Nintendo Sixty four controllers each paintings at 3.Three volts. But at the USB bus, handiest 5 volts are available. For this reason, a voltage regulator is required. Apart from the different firmware, that is the one distinction (and additional complexity) this undertaking has with my Nes/Snes controller to USB mission.
Pictures taken all through building with the brand new PCB:
Pictures of the N64 to USB prototype. I used an lm317 adjustable voltage regulator:The N64 Hori-mini and white Gamecube controller with additional lengthy cable paintings! The Gamecube keyboard is supported since version 2.9. Contributions Here are some photos from Declan Williams (Sixteen years old!): Sean Green constructed and used my circuit in a couple of projects:
The Bliss 4-pack
The Bliss WormNote: The bliss 4pack displayed here is NOT a 4 player version of the challenge. It is most effective an USB HUB with Four built-in GC/N64 to USB converters.2013-02-14: Ludivine built a N64 adapter according to this venture. The voltage regulator is at the again side of the PCB. July 19, 2014 (Saturday)TALENTO from Bulgaria despatched me pictures of the GC/N64 to USB adapter he constructed on common board. October 5, 2014 (Sunday)Browner87 used a 3-D printer to construct an enclosure housing a couple of GC/N64 to USB circuits, four controller connectors and an USB Hub. Additional comments and images to be had on imgur. October 11, 2014 (Saturday)Jonathan despatched me the following footage of the Gamecube to USB adapter he built. He used an Atmega8L-8PU which is therefore overclocked. But it sort of feels to work nice for him. March 10, 2015 (Tuesday)Rickey despatched me a picture of the adapter he build on a breadboard. He used an ATMega328P programmed with the Atmega168 firmware and fuses and the whole lot works! March 25, 2015 (Wednesday)Ashley shape Queensland, Australia, helps his little brother Shaun (who is 14) with a few tasks to get him fascinated about one thing other than just enjoying games. Together they built the SNES/NES to USB and Gamecube/N64 to USB circuit on a single breadboard. Components are on their means for the final model.
In order to obtain 3.Three volts, you'll be able to use a fixed voltage regulator such as the 78M33C or an adjustable voltage regulator such as the lm317 or lm1117 (exemple). If you employ an lm317 variable voltage regulator, here's a simple instrument which will let you discover a good value for R1. Any voltage between 3.26 and 3.40 volts must do the task.Wavebird color code (for reference simplest)I have been knowledgeable that the colour of the wires working from the gamecube connector to the PCB inside the receiver seem to be consistent: +3.3v: Rouge Data: Green GND: Brown (Pin) GND: Violet (Shield) Keep in thoughts that twine colours varies between manufactures, and every so often between revisions of the same product. Blindly following color codes without any checks can also be a great way to ruin electronics.
TopThe PCB is an stepped forward version of the PCB used for the Nes/Snes controller to USB.. This new PCB has a voltage regulator and reprogramming contacts at the backside side. Here are composite images of the highest and backside layers:
BottomThe regulator is an lm1117mp-adj. Zero ohm resistors will have to be installed to select the ability source (USB 5 volts or regulator output) for the microcontroller and the controller. In this situation, R5 and R8 will have to be put in:
Here is a wiring diagram for the board:
And after all, listed below are the gerber information which you can use produce this PCB:multiuse.zip
Due to the truth that this board is two-sided and has numerous vias, development it at home is also somewhat harder than the ususal. If you want, you'll get skilled PCBs from my online store. The PCBs from my store, on the other hand, are somewhat older than the one above. I've had a huge quantity produced with a small mistake: The 5 volts provide from the USB bus does now not achieve the regulator!
In order to correct this, a small wire has to be put in at the bottom side:
Using the .hex informationHexfiles within the gc_n64_usb-m8-x.x.hex structure are for Atmega8, recordsdata within the gc_n64_usb-m168-x.x.hex layout are for Atmega168. (Note: I'm informed that the mega168 firmware and fuse vales additionally paintings for Atmega328p)
The fuses settings for this projet are:For Atmega8: high_byte=0xc9 low_byte=0x9f. For Atmega168: HFUSE = 0xD5, LFUSE = 0xD7, EFUSE = 0x01. For details about easy methods to program an AVR, please consult with my AVR programming page.
Hori-mini N64 pads are known to misbehave with many adaptors. After testing a donated Hori-mini N64 pad with one in all my adapters, they appeared to work correctly... Until any individual reported problems. When shifting the axis, there can be unexpected jumps to different positions, hindering gameplay. I attempted my Hori controller with a few of my adapters and on a few computers. I ultimately controlled to discover a unit which did not paintings smartly with my controller and started looking for the motive.
I realized one thing bizarre once I appeared on the communique between the Hori and my adapter. The Hori verbal exchange timing used to be very other from what I expected. The image below shows the low/prime ratios for every bit being very different between the poll (from the adapter) and the answer (from the controller). The HORI controller replies at 66% the velocity of a 'customary' N64 controller:As chances are you'll already know, the bits are encoded as follows. Normally (at least with Nintendo's hardware), the timing is 3μs low/1μS top or 1μS low/3μS prime for transmitting a zero or 1 respectively. (See references for more information). My unique code merely waits for the initial falling edge and takes a sample 2μS later. Under preferrred conditions, the pattern price (1 or 0) is representative of the bit being sent. The 2μS delay manner the sample is taked perfectly in the heart of the bit. This is good but handiest works if the controller uses the traditional 1μS/3μS timing (or something close enough).
As we can see at the proper, the pattern place when receiving bits from a Hori-mini PAD is close to the rising edge. And it really works. But that is unhealthy as a result of on this state of affairs, a small timing difference would possibly purpose malfunction ; there aren't enough tolerances. And real existence has confirmed this to be a problem.Normal timingGood: Sample focused Hori timingBad: Sample near increasing edge
Why sampling near the increasing edge is an issue:The sampling cannot be done exactly at 2μS. There is some jitter introduced by way of the polling loop used to stumble on the falling edge. In other phrases, some samples will be taken even closer to the rising edge, or all over the rising edge. The Hori-mini PAD interior oscillator frequency might range between gadgets and with temperature. In other words, some controllers may send bits at a slightly slower rate (does not help) or sooner (helps). The rather slow-rising of the information line may additionally obstruct reliability. At what level exactly will the MCU see a logic 1? This is within the MCU specs, however it will trade slighly from unit to unit or with more recent version of the chip (e.g. Atmega8a) And if an extension cable will increase capacitance, the situation will likely be worst. The resolution: (since model 1.3)I concluded that I needed a better reception algorithm. Instead of sampling just a little later or writing a brand new model that will measure the timing and regulate the sample place accordingly, I came up with one thing a lot better which is able to tolerate faster and much slower timings within a good margin:Measure the time till rising edge (low degree length) Measure the time till falling edge (top level length) Compare time spent low vs. prime, if more time was spent low, we got a zero. Otherwise, we were given a 1. Repeat Counting is completed in assembler to be rapid and predicatable (i.e. no C compiler optimisations in the way in which). At 16mhz, every polling cycle takes round 312.5nS. This means a 1μS stage will count as Three cycles and a 3μS will rely as 9 cycles. If the timing is slower, the selection of cycles shall be greater, however the time spent low vs. time spent top relation will nonetheless practice.
Transmission interruptedRemember the USB implementation is all tool. The MCU can subsequently be interrupted at any second to maintain USB communications. Occasionally, this occurs proper once we are in the course of verbal exchange with the sport controller, messing with the timing. This is demonstrated at the image at the right. Red marks a pause within the transmission (best waveform) because of USB verbal exchange (bottom waveform).
When an USB interrupt happens at the incorrect second, the gamecube/n64 protocol body is potentially corrupted and if it is, it will have to be discarded. When trasmitting, we depend on the recreation controller to hit upon the mistake and drop the frame. Then we simply timeout looking forward to the solution. If as an alternative the interrupt occrurs all the way through reception, we will be able to omit some transitions and may not receive the choice of bits we anticipated.
Despite of the above theory, it will seem that once in a while (as soon as in a number of mins) some errors are not detected. A couple of users had reported that every so often buttons seem to be reported active for a brief second (despite the fact that hello were not pressed) so I made up our minds to do away with this possibility through preventing these interrupts from occuring on the flawed time. And indeed, with the new white Gamecube controllers, the one controller I could confirm the problem with, the problem appears to be gone.
Disabling interrupts throughout the timing delicate communication isn't possible due to the software USB implementation that does not allow us to disable them for long sufficient a time to be useful. On the opposite hand, we have roughly 900μS between interrupts which leaves us sufficient of time to keep in touch with the controller without being disturbed. We just want to synchronize with the USB interrupts and poll the controller when USB is idle.
I thought of an easy tool solution. The good judgment which controls the controller polling price stays the similar. But simply ahead of the real communication, the MCU is put in a nap mode (IDLE mode). In this mode, customary execution stops till an interrupt occurs. When the execution resumes, we all know an interrupt has occured and has been serviced so we can just continue and poll the controller. A small lengthen sooner than polling helps us for cases where we obtain a few interrupts in a burst.
With this answer applied, the controller polling is at all times neatly placed inside the 900μS slot to be had between USB interrupts, as may also be noticed in the following screenshot:
GC/N64 and USB
Uncorrected L/R sliders
Corrected L/R slidersThe Gamecube controller sliders are regularly problematic because they lack a central resting position. Many games suppose an axis to be active when the value it reads is different, within a undeniable margin, from the middle place. Thus, when performing button assignments, the L and R sliders will steadily immediately register as active and obstruct (or possibly, prevent) effectively configuring the sport for the controller.
The following software will have to be run after appearing calibration (standard home windows tools) . When it is run, it looks for raphnet GC/N64 to usb adapters and alters the calibration information the system keeps for each unit discovered. All axis are left as calibrated, aside from the L and R sliders which can be recentered.
The tool can be downloaded proper right here:gc_calfix_ng_v1.3.zip Supports all firmware variations.
A successfull operation will output something like this:
Previous versions:gc_calfix_ng_v1.2.zip Supports up to firmware version 2.3.
Here are a few photos of the keyboard:
Keys (proper part)
Keys (left part)
InteriorDevelopment log and technical details November 23, 2013
The very first thing I did was once looking at what would be the answer to command 0x00 (GET ID). The adapter already uses this to discover the type of controller (N64 vs. GC) these days attached, so detecting the keyboard right here was once logical. I decoded the solution manually with a scope (a lot more uncomplicated than for the Dreamcast controller communique protocol I was having a look at just lately...)0000 a thousand 0010 0000 0000 0000 : 0x082000 Note: Only the first Sixteen bits are used for ID. So the keyboard ID is in reality 0x0820.
Shortly after, I checked out a excellent gamecube documentation and confirmed I used to be getting the right kind ID code, the whole lot high-quality. I then persevered experimenting and tried polling the keyboard using the command most often used to learn the state of a controller (0x400300) however the keyboard did not solution. Not the best command. Back to the documentation, I learned comand 0x540000 must be used. Then after all, it labored.
The keyboard returns 64 bits (Eight bytes):First 32-bit wordSecond word:Bit 31: ErrstatBits 31-24: Keycode (1)Bit 30: ErrlatchBits 29-28: ? Bits 27-24: Looks like a 4-bit counter. Purpose unknown.Bits 23-0: ?Bits 23-16: Keycode (2)Bits 15-8: Keycode (3)Bits 7: ?Bits 6-4: Maybe a checksum. Depends on the depressed button combinations.Bits 3-0: Looks like a 4-bit counter. Purpose unknown.
This keyboard suports as much as Three simultaneous keypresses so I built the HID report descriptor accordingly. Usually, "special" keys such as CTRL, SHIFT and ALT are transmitted the usage of dedicated bits in the document, but for the reason that Gamecube keyboard does no longer have this concept and simply studies the ones keys like others (the use of complete 8-bit keycodes), I do the similar.
Unlike Dreamcast keyboards, this Gamecube keyboard does not use the keycodes from the USB HID Usage Tables report. (section 10 : Keyboard/Keypad web page [0x07])
So I created a translation table. As it is a Japanese taste keyboard, there are a few unusual keys and plenty of may not produce the labelled characters unless the PC is configured to use a Japanese Keyboard.Gamecube Name(s)Gamecube KeyCode(s)HID Name(s)HID KeyCode(s)CommentsA - Z 0x10 - 0x29 A - Z0x04 - 0x1D 1 - 9 0x2A - 0x32 1 - 90x1E - 0x26 0 0x33 0 0x27 ESC 0x4C ESC 0x29 BACKSPACE 0x50 BACKSPACE0x2A TAB TAB 0x2B SPACE SPACE 0x2C _= 0x34 -_ 0x2D First key proper of 0 ^~ 0x35 =+ 0x2E Second key right of 0 @` 0x37 [ 0x2f First key proper of P [ 0x38 ] 0x30 Second key proper of P] 0x3B Non-US # and ~ 0x32 Third key right of L ;+ 0x39 ;: 0x33 First key right of L :* 0x3A '" 0x34 Second key right of L 半角・全角0x3F `~ 0x35 ,< 0x3C ,< 0x36 .> 0x3D ,> 0x37 /? 0x3E /? 0x38 Caps lock・英数0x53 Caps lock 0x39 F1 - F12 0x40 - 0x4BF1 - F120x3A - 0x46 Scroll lock 0x0A Scroll lock 0x47 Accessible via FN Insert 0x4d Insert 0x49 Home 0x06 Home 0x4A Accessible via FNPgUp 0x08 PgUp 0x4B Accessible via FNDelete 0x4E Delete 0x4C End 0x07 End 0x4D Accessible via FNPgDn 0x09 PgDn 0x4E Accessible via FNRight(→) 0x5F RightArrow 0x4F Left(←) 0x5C LeftArrow 0x50 Down(↓) 0x5D DownArrow 0x51 Up(↑) 0x5E UpArrow 0x52 Enter 0x61 Enter 0x58 \_ 0x3F International 1 0x87 Extra key after /? [HID usage tables Footnote 15-20] カタカナ・ひらがな 0x5B International 2 0x88 ¥| 0x36 International 3 0x89 Extra key before "back-space" 全候補・変換（次候補） 0x5A International 4 0x8A 無変換 0x58 International 5 0x8B CTRL (left) 0x56 Left control 0xE0 SHIFT (left) 0x54 Left shift 0xE1 SHIFT (proper) 0x55 Right shift 0xE5 ALT (left) 0x57 Right alt 0xE6 Actually a LEFT-ALT key on the keyboard, however RIGHT-ALT is needed to access alternate key purposes 漢字、漢字番号、全候補 and ローマ字. References:Joy-Bus Devices, segment 9.1, ID and Device ListJoy-Bus Devices, secion 9.3.2, Scancodes
Technical knowledge regarding the Gamecube controllers: http://www.int03.co.uk/crema/hardware/gamecube/gc-control.htm
The N64 controller pinout appears at the following pages:http://www.hardwarebook.info/N64_Controllerhttp://www.fpga-games.com/n64tst.htm
Now you can not say that I didn't alert you :)