Bald Eagle Size To Human

As it will be expected, Bald Eagle eggs building up in weight from the south to the north. Bald Eagle eggs' weight vary is going kind of from 108 to 131 grams (4 - 4.6 ounces). Eggshell Thickness . Measurements of Bald Eagle eggs taken earlier than 1947 showed a median of 0.6 mm in thickness. This is concerning the thickness of wholesome bald eagle eggs theseSize - A feminine bald eagle's frame period varies from 35 to 37 inches; with a wingspan of 79 to ninety inches. The smaller male bald eagle has a frame length of 30 to 34 inches; with a wingspan starting from 72 to eighty five inches. An eagle's average weight is ten to fourteen kilos. Northern birds are considerably greater than their southern relations.An eagle's eyeball is almost the same size as a human eye. Given that the eyeball is so large relative to the size of the top, an eagle's eyes fill many of the skull. Each eyeball is "fixed" in the skull, held in position by way of a sclerotic ring.The harpy eagle is so big, people if truth be told assume it is a human in a fowl costume. Image credit: crg339. Image credit: birds.nature. Image credits: animalplanet. Recently somebody uploaded a picture of the harpy eagle to the /r/NatureIsF-ingLit/ subreddit and it were given over 92k upvotes in an afternoon. People were completely amazed by this giant chickenData compiled by Mark Stalmaster (1987 - "The Bald Eagle" pg. 16) discovered that 2 size measurements, beak intensity and hallux (toe claw) period, display the best separation in sexes. These measurements can be utilized in the following equation: intercourse = (bill intensity x 0.392) + (hallux duration x 0.340) -27.694 (measurements in millimeters).

American Bald Eagle Information, Facts & Photos

Before I solution this query, consider the trendy eagle's recently extinct ancestor, the Haast eagle, local to Madagascar and one of the crucial greatest birds of prey that ever existed. Haast eagles died out about six hundred years ago when newly arrived humans...The greatest recorded bald eagle nest, located in St. Petersburg, Florida, was once 9.5 ft in diameter, 20 toes deep and weighed almost 3 heaps. Golden eagle nests, whilst huge, are most often smaller and flatter than bald eagle nests. Visit the National Eagle Center to see our life-size reproduction bald eagle nest - climb in and notice just how big it is!The states 2005 bald eagle management plan set a function of 25 lively eagle nests within the state. As for 2015 there were an estimated 140-One hundred fifty active nests, and the state voted to take the bald eagle off their threatened species checklist due to their wholesome population.The female bald eagle size can also be from 35-37 inches with a wingspan of 79-90 inches. The male is smaller, with a body size of 30-34 inches and a 72-85 inch wingspan. Weight is at a median of ten to fourteen pounds. A bald eagle has eyesight that is four times sharper than a human being's eyesight. The bald eagle will eat carrion (dead

American Bald Eagle Information, Facts & Photos

Eagle Eyes - National Eagle Center

Depending on the size of a Bald Eagle, it will probably lift between 4 - 6 kilograms (8.8 - thirteen lbs). Some Alaskan eagles had been recorded lifting weights of neatly over 7 kg (15.Four lbs). Sometimes eagles have trouble judging the load of prey.The reasonable size of a full-grown bald eagle is about 2.5 to Three feet in height. Bald eagles are not literally bald. Bald eagles have 20/5 vision evaluate to the human's 20/20. The eagle's eyes can see up to 5 instances farther than the typical human eye. In different words, they have 20/5 vision making them a number of the most powerful eyes in the animalPersonalized Large Size Finding Freedom Flying American Eagle Human Cremation Urn with Keepsake and Velvet Bags 5.Zero out of five stars 20 $117.00 $ 117 . 00 ($117.00/Count)The bald eagle is typically relatively delicate to human job while nesting, and is located most regularly in areas with minimal human disturbance. It chooses websites greater than 1.2 km (0.seventy five mi) from low-density human disturbance and more than 1.8 km (1.1 mi) from medium- to high-density human disturbance. [41]The reasonable bald eagle grab size is just below 2 eggs/grab (1.9). If we suppose that a female eagle starts nesting at age 5, and lives until she is 25, she may have twenty years of egg-laying.

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Bald Eagle Guide - New York Natural Heritage Program


Did you know?

The phrase "bald" in bald eagle is shortened from the word "piebald" which means spotted or patched, especially in black and white. Piebald is a fitting description for the bald eagle because of its dark frame and white head and tail (Cornell Lab of Ornithology 2003).

State Ranking Justification

In 2017, there have been approximately 426 occupied bald eagle nest sites of which Forty eight failed (did not fledge young). There are many websites on public land. During the non-breeding season, Bald Eagles are discovered all over the state, but they have a tendency to pay attention at wintering spaces and roosts at about 4 open water websites in the state. While breeding and wintering populations are increasing in New York they are nonetheless confronted with many threats together with development, human disturbances, infected meals base, and collision with top speed trains, towers, wind turbines, and electrical strains.

Short-term Trends

The collection of breeding and wintering Bald Eagles has been expanding because the Nineteen Seventies when the population was once one breeding pair. The pair regularly failed at nesting makes an attempt it seems that on account of thin egg shells (Nye 1982). The population increase lately has been completed through coverage and energetic control, as well as via enhanced replica after the DDT ban. The Department of Environmental Conservation began a reintroduction program that involved egg transplants, fostering, and hacking (hand rearing and releasing older nestlings within the absence of grownup birds). Hacking proved to be essentially the most a hit in 1976 and 1988. A complete of 198 nestlings were released at 4 sites in the state. Thirty-two of the ones birds did not live to tell the tale; 16 had been illegally shot (Levine 1998). In 1980 two hacked birds nested in Jefferson County.

Between 2002 and 2007, 324-442 wintering birds have been counted at the 4 primary spaces where the birds listen. The numbers most probably range in accordance with the severity of wintry weather climate. In 2017, there have been 426 energetic breeding pairs and a complete of 209 young fledged in the state (NYS DEC 2017). In addition, there are many immatures and non-breeding adults that are living in New York all the way through the spring and summer months. It isn't sure how strong the Bald Eagle population is in New York at the moment. The traits are mostly dependant on how a lot Bald Eagles can be suffering from habitat loss and alterations due to construction. Confirmed breeding was reported from two blocks throughout the first Breeding Bird Atlas. A dramatic increase is famous with the second Breeding Bird Atlas with 124 blocks with showed breeding (Andrle and Carroll 1988, McGowan and Corwin 2008). Breeding Bird Survey pattern knowledge isn't to be had for Bald Eagles.

Long-term Trends

The earliest information of nesting Bald Eagles are from the past due 1800s when breeding was once documented in Essex, Erie, Jefferson, and Dutchess counties, even if Bald Eagles have been in all probability found in New York earlier than then. Between 1860 and 1960 there have been 72 verified Bald Eagle nest websites in New York. Of the Seventy two nests, some were exchange nest sites and no longer the entire nests were occupied every yr (Andrle and Carroll 1988). The population decline began ahead of World War II for various causes including habitat loss, increased human disturbances, and unlawful shootings (Levine 1998). In 1946, DDT, an agricultural pesticide, was in in style use. At the onset of DDT use the Bald Eagle breeding population was once at roughly 20 pairs (Levine 1998). Runoff from spaces sprayed with DDT made its method into the aquatic ecosystem. DDT accrued in the tissues of fish and sooner or later poisoned Bald Eagles. DDT and its breakdown products led to egg shell thinning in Bald Eagles and plenty of other raptor species. As a consequence, birds incubating eggs continuously broke the egg shells before the eggs hatched. By 1972, when DDT use was banned in the United States, only one breeding pair remained in New York and the pair rarely fledged young. Since then, Bald Eagle populations had been recuperating with 426 known energetic breeding pairs in New York in 2017. Breeding Bird Survey trend data is not to be had for Bald Eagles (Sauer et al. 2007). There is a few uncertainty on what the longer term holds for this species in New York because of more than a few anthropogenic elements (McGowan and Corwin 2008 and Nye 2005).

Conservation and Management


While Bald Eagle breeding and non-breeding populations are increasing in New York, there are nonetheless important threats to the persistence of this species in the state. Habitat loss or alterations are one of the vital threats. Many parts of New York are beneath top development drive. This species prefers slightly undisturbed, wooded areas near wetlands or massive bodies of water with ample prey (fish). Areas with construction or different human disturbances would most probably be unsuitable for nesting and wintering Bald Eagles. Habitat destruction has been more in depth within the Bald Eagle wintering range (Nye 1994). Disturbance to wintering birds can be especially destructive because it may deplete the birds' power reserves. Bald Eagles spend most of the iciness sedentary (roughly 99%); power is reserved for foraging, feeding, thermoregulation, and different very important actions (Nye 1994). Depleted power might lead to a drop in a person's reproductive charge for the 12 months, or death (Nye 1994). In addition, if a feeding bald eagle is disturbed it is going to abandon its meals and perhaps won't go back to the area for the remainder of the day. Banning DDT has very much larger the reproductive health of bald eagles, but there are many different contaminants that proceed to affect the reproductive luck of adult pairs corresponding to lead, mercury, and PCBs. Other threats come with vehicular collisions (corresponding to top velocity trains), and collisions with towers, wind mills, and electric lines (McGowan and Corwin 2008 and Nye 2005).

Conservation Strategies and Management Practices

Human disturbances should be minimized at breeding and wintering sites. Pedestrians may also be extra aggravating to Bald Eagles than some motorized cars (Nye 1994). A 500 meter buffer around the nest is also ok (NatureServe 2005). A minimum buffer of 250-Three hundred meters is recommended for perch and feeding sites; others have advisable a better distance (Nye 1994). It is also advisable to submit signs and limit get right of entry to to areas when breeding or wintering Bald Eagles are provide. Vegetative buffer zones might help minimize some disturbances associated with building (Nye 1994). Avoid the addition of latest, tall structures such as wind-generators, towers, and electric lines near breeding and wintering locations.

Research Needs

Determine the very important Bald Eagle breeding and wintering habitats thru box observations and radio telemetry. Collect more knowledge about website online fidelity, familial relationships to habitat use, migratory patterns/pathways, and residential levels of breeding and wintering Bald Eagles in New York. Sample for contaminant lots periodically (Nye 2005).



Bald Eagles are typically discovered close to massive bodies of water, akin to bays, rivers, and lakes, that support a wholesome population of fish and waterfowl, their primary meals source. Generally, Bald Eagles generally tend to steer clear of areas with human actions. They will perch in either deciduous or coniferous bushes. Large, heavy nests are normally constructed close to water in tall pine, spruce, fir, cottonwood, oak, poplar, or beech bushes. Non-breeding adults and wintering birds are recognized to have communal roost sites. During the winter, the roost websites may be farther clear of food resources. This could also be due to the desire for a extra sheltered, warmer space. Feeding areas right through the iciness months in most cases have a prime focus of fish and waterfowl and open water (NatureServe 2005).

Associated Ecological Communities Acidic talus slope wooded area (guide)

An open to closed canopy wooded area that occurs on talus slopes (slopes of boulders and rocks, often on the base of cliffs) composed of non-calcareous rocks corresponding to granite, quartzite, or schist.

Allegheny oak forest (guide)

A hardwood woodland that occurs on well-drained websites within the unglaciated portion of southwestern New York. This is a wooded area of blended oaks with a diverse cover and richer ground flora than other oak communities within the state.

Appalachian oak-hickory forest (information)

A hardwood woodland that happens on well-drained sites, typically on ridgetops, higher slopes, or south- and west-facing slopes. The soils are generally loams or sandy loams. This is a widely outlined woodland neighborhood with several regional and edaphic variants. The dominant bushes include purple oak, white oak, and/or black oak. Mixed with the oaks, generally at lower densities, are pignut, shagbark, and/or candy pignut hickory.

Beech-maple mesic woodland* (guide)

A hardwood wooded area with sugar maple and American beech codominant. This is a widely outlined group kind with several variants. These forests occur on moist, well-drained, usually acid soils. Common friends are yellow birch, white ash, hop hornbeam, and crimson maple. * possible association however not showed.

Black spruce-tamarack lavatory (guide)

A conifer woodland that occurs on acidic peatlands in cool, poorly tired depressions. The characteristic trees are black spruce and tamarack; in any one stand, either tree may be dominant, or they is also codominant. Canopy cover is rather variable, ranging from open cover woodlands with as low as 20% cover of flippantly spaced canopy bushes to closed canopy forests with 80 to 90% duvet.

Calcareous talus slope wooded area (guide)

An open or closed cover neighborhood that occurs on talus slopes composed of calcareous bedrock corresponding to limestone or dolomite. The soils are generally moist and loamy; there could also be a lot of rock outcrops.

Chestnut oak wooded area (guide)

A hardwood woodland that happens on well-drained sites in glaciated parts of the Appalachians, and at the coastal simple. This forest is the same to the Allegheny oak wooded area; it's distinguished by means of fewer cover dominants and a much less diverse shrublayer and groundlayer plant life. Dominant timber are usually chestnut oak and purple oak.

Floodplain forest (information)

A hardwood forest that happens on mineral soils on low terraces of river floodplains and river deltas. These sites are characterised by means of their flood regime; low spaces are every year flooded in spring, and top areas are flooded irregularly.

Hemlock-northern hardwood forest (information)

A blended forest that generally happens on center to lower slopes of ravines, on cool, mid-elevation slopes, and on wet, well-drained websites on the margins of swamps. Eastern hemlock is provide and is incessantly the most considerable tree within the woodland.

Maple-basswood wealthy mesic woodland* (information)

A species rich hardwood forest that usually occurs on well-drained, wet soils of circumneutral pH. Rich herbs are predominant in the flooring layer and are generally correlated with calcareous bedrock, even supposing bedrock does now not have to be uncovered. The dominant trees are sugar maple, basswood, and white ash. * possible affiliation however now not showed.

Oak-tulip tree wooded area (information)

A hardwood forest that occurs on moist, well-drained websites in southeastern New York. The dominant trees include a mix of five or more of the next: crimson oak, tulip tree, American beech, black birch, pink maple, scarlet oak, black oak, and white oak.

Pine-northern hardwood wooded area* (information)

A combined forest that happens on gravelly outwash plains, delta sands, eskers, and dry lake sands in the Adirondacks. The dominant timber are white pine and crimson pine. * possible affiliation however no longer showed.

Pitch pine-oak-heath rocky summit* (information)

A group that happens on heat, dry, rocky ridgetops and summits the place the bedrock is non-calcareous (corresponding to quartzite, sandstone, or schist), and the soils are roughly acidic. This community is extensively outlined and includes examples that can lack pines and are ruled by way of scrub oak and/or heath shrubs it appears related to fireplace regime. * possible affiliation however not showed.

Red maple-hardwood swamp (information)

A hardwood swamp that occurs in poorly tired depressions, most often on inorganic soils. Red maple is generally essentially the most ample canopy tree, but it can be codominant with white, green, or black ash; white or slippery elm; yellow birch; and swamp white oak.

Red maple-tamarack peat swamp (guide)

A swamp that occurs on natural soils (peat or muck) in poorly drained depressions. These swamps are continuously spring fed or enriched via seepage of mineral-rich groundwater resulting in a stable water desk and frequently saturated soil. The dominant trees are purple maple and tamarack. These species in most cases form an open canopy (50 to 70% quilt) with a lot of small openings ruled via shrubs or sedges.

Rich mesophytic wooded area (information)

A hardwood or blended forest that resembles the blended mesophytic forests of the Allegheny Plateau south of New York however is much less numerous. It happens on wealthy, fine-textured, well-drained soils which can be favorable for the dominance of all kinds of tree species. A canopy with a relatively large number of codominant timber characterizes this wooded area. Canopy codominants include 5 or extra of the following species: pink oak, pink maple, white ash, American beech, sugar maple, black cherry, cucumber tree, and black birch.

Shale talus slope forest* (information)

An open to closed canopy wooded area that happens on talus slopes composed of shale. These slopes are relatively volatile, and they're normally very well-drained, so the soils are shallow and dry. The canopy duvet is usually not up to 50%, due to the instability of the substrate. * probable association but no longer confirmed.

Spruce-fir swamp (guide)

A conifer swamp that most often happens in a drainage basin but in addition can happen on the edge of a lake or pond or alongside gentle slopes of islands. These swamps are generally dense, with a moderately closed canopy (80 to 90% cover). The dominant tree is most often crimson spruce. Codominant bushes include balsam fir and red maple. In the Catskills, balsam fir may be absent, and in the Adirondacks, black spruce or white spruce may change crimson spruce as a dominant tree.

Spruce-northern hardwood forest (information)

A mixed woodland that occurs on decrease mountain slopes and upper margins of residences on glacial until. This is a broadly defined group with a number of variants; it is likely one of the most common wooded area sorts within the Adirondacks. Codominant timber are red spruce, sugar maple, American beech, yellow birch, and purple maple, with scattered balsam fir.


New York State Distribution

Bald Eagles breed right through New York State, in most cases in spaces with massive our bodies of water that reinforce high fish populations. They have returned to Long Island, where they have been identified historically. Wintering areas are concentrated in 4 main areas: the Upper Delaware River, the Saint Lawrence River, the Lower Hudson River, and the Sacandaga River.

Global Distribution

Breeding: Bald Eagles breed near water from Alaska during Canada and in scattered areas all through the United States. Within the United States, they're very native breeders within the Great Basin and prairie and plains areas in interior North America, where the breeding range recently has expanded to include Nebraska and Kansas. Small numbers of breeding pairs had been present in Mexico. Non-breeding: Generally, non-breeding Bald Eagles are discovered all through the breeding range apart from in the far north (AOU 1983 cited in NatureServe 2005, Sibley and Monroe 1990 cited in NatureServe 2005). Most regularly they are found from southern Alaska and southern Canada southward. The Chilkat Bald Eagle Preserve in Alaska supports the most important wintering population anyplace (Ehrlich et al. 1992 cited in NatureServe 2005). Winter concentrations happen in British Columbia-northwestern Washington, along the Missouri and Mississippi rivers, and in northern Arkansas. One of the biggest fall (mid-October to mid-December) migrant concentrations (200-Three hundred birds at anybody time, close to a thousand folks through the season) happens at Hauser Lake close to Helena, Montana.

Best Places to See As the Bald Eagle is a delicate species, no websites are indexed. Contact local raptor facilities to in finding out if they have any people for viewing. Identifying Characteristics

Adult bald eagles can easily be identified by way of their white head, white tail, and big, brilliant yellow invoice. The plumage is otherwise dark. Immature bald eagles are darkish with variable amounts of sunshine splotching on the frame, underwing coverts, flight feathers, and tail base. They have a grey invoice. Adult plumage and a yellow bill are attained at four to five years of age. The average size of an grownup is 79-Ninety four cm (31-37 inches) long with a wingspan of 178-229 cm (70-Ninety inches) (National Geographic Society 1987). Bald eagle nests are constructed close to the top of robust, tall bushes. The nest is a flat-topped mass of sticks this is coated with advantageous vegetation comparable to rushes, grasses, and mosses. Each yr, the breeding pair adds to the nest leading to an enormous nest that may be seven to 8 ft across and weigh up to several tons. Eggs are relatively smaller than a domestic goose egg and are dull white. Their name has been described as a harsh cackle, kleek-kik-ik-ik-ik or a lower kak-kak-kak.


At approximately Five years of age, Bald Eagles succeed in sexual adulthood. They usually mate for life, but exceptions are noted. Courtship presentations will also be noticed late winter to early spring and contain elaborate aerial presentations; the pair will dive with locked talons. Males and females build nests together and continue to add sticks each breeding season. In addition, the pair incubates and cares for younger in combination. However, the female takes on maximum of this responsibility. After the breeding season, Bald Eagles are regularly found at communal roosts and feeding spaces.


The Bald Eagle's number one meals sources are fishes, injured waterfowl and seabirds, various mammals, and carrion. They are opportunistic feeders; they will hunt are living prey, scavenge, and pirate meals from other birds.

Best Time to See

Concentrations of Bald Eagles will also be found in New York all over the iciness months. In southeastern New York, Bald Eagles begin arriving on the wintering space in early November and are maximum considerable in February. During late February to early March, Bald Eagles are transferring to their breeding territories.

Active Reproducing

The time of 12 months you could possibly expect to find Bald Eagle energetic and reproducing in New York.

Similar Species Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) (guide)

Immature Bald Eagles differ from immature Golden Eagles in that the Golden Eagle has feathered legs and white is restricted to the flight feathers. Also, Golden Eagles leap with the outer part of the wings lifted in a slight dihedral.

Osprey (Pandion haliaetus)

Ospreys have a white head just like the Bald Eagle, but not like the Bald Eagle, they've a outstanding dark eye stripe. Ospreys are white below and dark brown above. When in flight, ospreys' long, narrow wings are bent back at the wrist.

Bald Eagle Images


Bald EagleHaliaeetus leucocephalus (Linnaeus, 1766)

Kingdom Animalia Phylum Craniata Class Aves (Birds) Order Accipitriformes (Hawks, Kites, Eagles and allies) Family Accipitridae (Hawks and Eagles)

Additional Resources


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Andrle, Robert F. and Janet R. Carroll, editors. 1988. The atlas of breeding birds in New York State. Cornell University Press. 551 pp.

Bent, A.C. 1937. Life histories of North American birds of prey. Part 1. Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus. 137. 409 pp.

Bird, D. M., editor. 1983. Biology and control of bald eagles and ospreys. MacDonald. 325 pp.

Bowerman, W. W., T. G. Grubb, J. P. Giesy, A. J. Bath, and G. A. Dawson. 1993. Population composition and perching habitat of wintering Bald Eagles in northcentral Michigan. Canadian Field Naturalist 107: 273- 278.

Buehler, D. A., S. K. Chandler, T. J. Mersmann, J. D. Fraser, and J. Okay. D. Seegar. 1992. Nonbreeding Bald Eagle perch habitat at the northern Chesapeake Bay. Wilson Bulletin 104:540-545.

Buehler, D. A., et al. 1991a. Differences in distribution of breeding, nonbreeding, and migrant bald eagles on the northern Chesapeake Bay. Condor 93:399-408.

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Buehler, D. A., et al. 1991c. Survival rates and inhabitants dynamics of bald eagles on Chesapeake Bay. J. Wildlife Management 55:608-613.

Buehler, D. A., et al. 1991d. Nonbreeding bald eagle communal and solitary roosting conduct and roost habitat on the northern Chesapeake Bay. J. Wildlife Management 55:273-281.

Buehler, D. A., et al. 1991e. Winter microclimate of bald eagle roosts at the northern Chesapeake Bay. Auk 108:612-618.

Bull, John. 1974. Birds of New York State. Doubleday, Garden City, New York. 655 pp.

Campbell, R. W., N. Okay. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J. M. Cooper, G. W. Kaiser, and M. C. McNall. 1990b. The birds of British Columbia. Volume 2. Nonpasserines: diurnal birds of prey through woodpeckers. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver, B.C. 636 pp.

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Curnutt, J. L. 1992. Dynamics of a year-round communal roost of bald eagles. Wilson Bull. 104:536-540.

Ehrlich, P. R., D. S. Dobkin, and D. Wheye. 1992. Birds in Jeopardy: the Imperiled and Extinct Birds of the United States and Canada, Including Hawaii and Puerto Rico. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. 259 pp.

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Gerrard, J. M., and G. R. Bortolotti. 1988. The bald eagle. Haunts and habits of a desert monarch. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 194 pp.

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Griffin, C. R., T. S. Baskett, and R. D. Sparrowe. 1982. Ecology of bald eagles wintering close to a waterfowl concentration. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Special Science Report - Wildlife No. 247:1-12.

Grubb, T. G. 1980. An artificial bald eagle nest structure. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experimental Station, Research Note RM-383.

Grubb, T. G., and R. M. King. 1991. Assessing human disturbance of breeding bald eagles with classification tree models. J. Wildlife Management 55:500-511.

Harrison, C. 1978. A Field Guide to the Nests, Eggs and Nestlings of North American Birds. Collins, Cleveland, Ohio.

Haywood, D. D., and R. D. Ohmart. 1986. Utilization of benthic-feeding fish by inland breeding bald eagles. Condor 88:35-42.

Johnsgard, P. A. 1990. Hawks, eagles, and falcons of North America. Smithsonian Inst. Press, Washington, D.C. xvi + 403 pp.

King, W. B., compiler. 1979. Endangered birds of the sector. The International Council for Bird Preservation. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. [Reprinted in handbook shape in 1981.]

Knight, R. L., and S. Okay. Knight. 1984. Responses of wintering bald eagles to boating activity. J. Wildlife Management 48:999-1004.

Levine, E. 1998. Bull's birds of New York State. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, NY.

Lincer, J. L., W. S. Clark, and M. N. LeFranc, Jr. 1979. Working bibliography of the bald eagle. Raptor Information Center, National Wildlife Federation, Washington, D.C. NWF Scientific/Technical Series No. 2. 219 pp.

Mahaffy, M. S., and L. D. Frenzel. 1987. Elicited territorial responses of northern bald eagles near lively nests. Journal of Wildlife Management 51:551-554.

Matthews, J.R. and C.J. Moseley (eds.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species of North America. Volume 1. Plants, Mammals. xxiii + pp 1-560 + 33 pp. appendix + 6 pp. word list + Sixteen pp. index. Volume 2. Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians, Fishes, Mussels, Crustaceans, Snails, Insects, and Arachnids. xiii + pp. 561-1180. Beacham Publications, Inc., Washington, D.C.

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Nye, Peter. 2003. Annual efforts and consequence of New York nesting bald eagles.

Nye, Peter. 2005. Species team report for bald eagle. Pages 2-7 of Appendix A1, Species staff studies for birds in: New York State complete flora and fauna conservation technique. New York Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany NY.

Nye, Peter. 2007. Annual efforts and outcome of New York nesting bald eagles.

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U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1990. Endangered and threatened species recovery program: record to Congress. 406 pp.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1999. Proposed rule to take away the Bald Eagle in the lower Forty eight states from the record of endangered and threatened wildlife. Federal Register 64:36453-36464.


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