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Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about the chromatin interaction screening method. For the potted plant, see Chia Pet.

Chromatin Interaction Analysis by Paired-End Tag Sequencing (ChIA-PET or ChIA-PETS) is a technique that incorporates chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-based enrichment, chromatin proximity ligation, Paired-End Tags, and High-throughput sequencing to determine de novo long-range chromatin interactions genome-wide.[1]

Genes can also be regulated by means of regions a long way from the promoter corresponding to regulatory components, insulators and boundary components, and transcription-factor binding websites (TFBS). Uncovering the interplay between regulatory areas and gene coding areas is very important for figuring out the mechanisms governing gene law in well being and illness (Maston et al., 2006). ChIA-PET can be utilized to identify distinctive, practical chromatin interactions between distal and proximal regulatory transcription-factor binding sites and the promoters of the genes they interact with.

ChIA-PET can be used to get to the bottom of the mechanisms of genome keep watch over during processes corresponding to cell differentiation, proliferation, and construction. By growing ChIA-PET interactome maps for DNA-binding regulatory proteins and promoter regions, we can better establish unique goals for healing intervention (Fullwood & Yijun, 2009).


The ChIA-PET approach combines ChIP-based strategies (Kuo & Allis, 1999), and Chromosome conformation seize (3C), to increase the capabilities of both approaches. ChIP-Sequencing (ChIP-Seq) is a popular means used to spot TFBS while 3C has been used to identify long-range chromatin interactions (Dekker et al., 2002). However, each be afflicted by boundaries when used independently to identify de-novo long-range interactions genome vast. While ChIP-Seq is most often used for genome-wide identity of TFBS (Barski et al., 2007; Wei et al., 2006), it supplies only linear knowledge of protein binding websites along the chromosomes (but not interactions between them), and will be afflicted by high genomic background noise (false positives).

While 3C is in a position to inspecting long-range chromatin interactions, it cannot be used genome huge and, like ChIP-Seq, additionally suffers from excessive ranges of background noise. Since the noise increases on the subject of the gap between interacting areas (max 100kb), exhausting and tedious controls are required for correct characterization of chromatin interactions (Dekker et al., 2006).

The ChIA-PET means successfully resolves the issues of non-specific interplay noise found in ChIP-Seq via sonicating the ChIP fragments as a way to separate random attachments from specific interplay complexes. The next step, which is known as enrichment, reduces complexity for genome-wide research and provides specificity to chromatin interactions certain by means of pre-determined TFs (transcription factors). The skill of 3C approaches to identify long-range interactions is in line with the speculation of proximity ligation. In regards to DNA inter-ligation, fragments which are tethered via not unusual protein complexes have better kinetic advantages underneath dilute conditions, than those freely diffusing in solution or anchored in different complexes. ChIA-PET takes advantage of this concept by means of incorporating linker sequences onto the free ends of the DNA fragments tethered to the protein complexes. In order to build connectivity of the fragments tethered by means of regulatory complexes, the linker sequences are ligated right through nuclear proximity ligation. Therefore, the products of linker-connected ligation may also be analyzed by ultra-high-throughput PET sequencing and mapped to the reference genome. Since ChIA-PET isn't depending on particular sites for detection as 3C and 4C are, it lets in independent, genome-wide de-novo detection of chromatin interactions (Fullwood et al., 2009).


Wet-lab portion of the workflow:

Figure 1. Biotinylated common linkers with Mme1 restriction endonuclease websites are offered. Figure 2. Biotinylated common linkers are ligated to the free DNA ends. Figure 3. Ligation of linkers right through proximity ligation. Figure 4. Pull down of biotinylated linkers via streptavidin-beads, and amplification of DNA tags. Figure 5. Conformations of common linkers. Formaldehyde is used to cross-link the DNA-protein complexes. Sonication is used to break-up the chromatin and also to scale back non-specific interactions. A specific antibody of choice is used to enrich protein-of-interest–sure chromatin fragments. ChIP material bound through the antibody are used to build the ChIA-PET. Figure 1. Biotinylated oligonucleotide half-linkers containing flanking MmeI sites are used to glue proximity ligated DNA fragments. Two different linkers are designed (A and B) with particular nucleotide barcodes (CG or AT) for each and every of the two linker sequences (this will allow the identification of the chimeric ligation product as described in Figure 5.). Figure 2. The linkers are ligated to the tethered DNA fragments. Figure 3. The linker fragments are ligated on the ChIP beads under dilute conditions. The purified DNA is then digested through MmeI, which cuts at a distance from its recognition website online to unencumber the tag-linker-tag structure. Figure 4. The biotinylated PETs are then immobilized on streptavidin-conjugated magnetic beads. Figure 5. PET sequences with AA (CG/CG) and BB (AT/AT) linker barcode composition are considered to be imaginable intra-complex ligation merchandise, whilst the PET sequences with AB (CG/AT) linker composition are thought to be to be derived from chimeric ligation merchandise between DNA fragments bounded in different chromatin complexes.

Dry-lab portion of the workflow:

PET extraction, mapping, and statistical analyses

The PET tags are extracted and mapped to the reference human genome in silico.

Identification of ChIP enriched peaks (binding websites)

Self-ligated PET are used for identifying ChIP enriched sites because they provide the maximum dependable mapping (20 + 20 bit/s) to the reference genome.

ChIP enrichment peak-finding set of rules

A referred to as height is considered a binding site if there are multiple overlapping self-ligated PETs. The false discovery rate (FDR) is determined using statistical simulations to estimate the random background of PET-derived digital DNA overlaps, and the estimated background noise.

Filtering of repetitive DNA (affects non-specific binding)

Satellite regions and binding websites present in regions with critical structural permutations are removed.

ChIP enrichment count

The numbers of self-ligation and inter-ligation PETs (inside + 250 bp window) are reported at every website online. The total choice of self-ligated and inter-ligated PETs at a specific web page is called the ChIP enrichment depend.

Figure 6. PET Classification: Uniquely aligned PET sequences will also be categorized via whether or not they're derived from one DNA fragment or two DNA fragments.

Figure 6. Intra and inter-ligated PETs are clustered round TFBS when mapped to the reference human genome. Self-ligation PETs

If the 2 tags of a PET are mapped on the similar chromosome with the genomic span in the differ of ChIP DNA fragments (not up to 3 Kb), with expected self-ligation orientation and on the identical strand, they are thought to be to be derived from a self-ligation of a unmarried ChIP DNA fragment, and regarded as a self-ligation PET.

Inter-ligation PETs

If a PET does no longer fit into those standards, then the PET possibly resulted from a ligation product between two DNA fragments and known as an inter-ligation PET. The two tags of an inter-ligation PETs don't have fixed tag orientations, will not be found on the similar strands, may have any genomic span, and would possibly now not map to the same chromosome.

Intrachromosomal inter-ligation PETs

If the 2 tags of an inter-ligation PET are mapped in the similar chromosome however with a span > 3 Kb in any orientation, then those PETs are known as intrachromosomal inter-ligation PETs.

Interchromosomal inter-ligation PETs

PETs that are mapped to different chromosomes are called interchromosomal inter-ligation PETs.

Figure 7. Proposed mechanism appearing how distal regulatory components can begin long-range chromatin interactions involving promoter areas of target genes.

Figure 7. Proposed DNA looping mechanism between distal regulatory proteins and the promoter region

The interactions shape DNA loop structures with multiple TFBS on the anchoring middle. Small loops may package genes close to the anchoring middle in a decent sub-compartment, which might increase the local concentration of regulatory proteins for enhanced transcriptional activation. This mechanism might also beef up transcription efficiency, allowing RNA pol II to cycle the tight round gene templates. The large interaction loops are more likely to hyperlink in combination far away genes at either finish of the loop living close to anchor sites for coordinated regulation, or may separate genes in long loops to stop their activation. Adapted from Fullwood et al. (2009).

Strengths and weaknesses

Advantages of the ChIA-PET way

ChIA-PET has a possible to be an impartial, whole-genome and de-novo approach for long-range chromatin interplay analysis (Fullwood & Yijun, 2009). A ChIA-PET experiment is able to providing two international datasets: The protein aspect binding websites (self-ligated PETs); and The interactions between the binding sites (inter-ligated PETs). ChIA-PET involves ChIP to cut back the complexity for genome-wide analysis and adds specificity to chromatin interactions certain by specific components of curiosity. ChIA-PET is appropriate with tag-based next-generation sequencing approaches such as Roche 454 pyrosequencing, Illumina GA, ABI SOLiD, and Helicos. ChIA-PET is appropriate to many alternative protein elements involved in transcriptional legislation or chromatin structural conformation. ChIA-PET research can be implemented to chromatin interactions focused on a selected nuclear procedure. By the use of common TFs comparable to RNA Polymerase II, it may be imaginable to spot all chromatin interactions all in favour of transcription law. Further, using protein factors concerned about DNA replication or chromatin construction would allow identification of all interactions due to DNA replication and chromatin structural modification (Fullwood et al., 2009).


It is definitely established that cis and trans-regulatory complexes contain unique mixtures of proteins according to mobile and tissue particular stipulations (Dekker et al., 2006). While identification of unmarried, useful TFBS is a significant development, the usage of ChIA-PET to identify person proteins in a posh would require guess paintings and more than one experiments to spot each and every interacting protein. This would be a pricey and time-consuming endeavour. ChIA-PET is proscribed through the standard, purity, and specificity of the antibodies used (Fullwood et al., 2009). ChIA-PET depends on identity of sequences that may be mapped to the reference collection (ref). ChIA-PET calls for the use of peak-calling pc algorithms to arrange and map PET reads to the reference genome. Because of permutations between device platforms, results can range relying on which program is used. Although repetitive DNA areas may also be associated with gene law (Polak & Domany, 2006), they wish to be got rid of as they are able to have an effect on the knowledge (Fullwood et al., 2009).


Fullwood et al. (2009), used ChIA-PET to discover and map the chromatin interplay network mediated through estrogen receptor alpha (ER-alpha) in human cancer cells. The ensuing international chromatin interactome map printed that remote ER-alpha-binding websites have been also anchored to gene promoters via long-range chromatin interactions suggesting that ER-alpha functions by way of in depth chromatin looping with a view to carry genes together for coordinated transcriptional legislation.

Analysis and instrument

Software normally used in a ChIA-PET experiment


Maps ChIP enriched DNA fragments to the reference human genome.[1]


In-silico overlaying of repetitive parts.[2]

Monte Carlo simulation

Used to estimate the false discovery charges.[2]


A tool suite for processing and managing of Paired-End di-Tag sequence knowledge.[3]


A tool suite for processing ChIA-PET information.ChIA-PET Tool web web page ChIA-PET Tool paper


Chromatin immunoprecipitation:


Chromosome conformation seize:

2-C, 3-C, 4-C, 5-C.

Paired-end tags:



^ .mw-parser-output .citation qquotes:"\"""\"""'""'".mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .quotation .cs1-lock-free abackground:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//")right 0.1em center/9px .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .quotation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration abackground:linear-gradient(clear,transparent),url("//")appropriate 0.1em middle/9px .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription abackground:linear-gradient(clear,clear),url("//")right 0.1em middle/9px .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration spanborder-bottom:1px dotted; .cs1-ws-icon abackground:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//")correct 0.1em center/12px code.cs1-codecolour:inherit;background:inherit;border:none; .cs1-hidden-errorshow:none; .cs1-maintshow:none;colour:#33aa33; .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflinkfont-weight:inheritFullwood, Melissa J.; Ruan, Yijun (2009-05-01). "ChIP-based methods for the identification of long-range chromatin interactions". Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. 107 (1): 30–39. doi:10.1002/jcb.22116. ISSN 1097-4644. PMC 2748757. PMID 19247990. ^ Monte Carlo approach Barski et al., (2007). High-resolution profiling of histone methylations within the human genome. Cell. (129); 823–37. Dekker, (2002). Capturing chromosome conformation. Science. (295); 1306–1311. Dekker, (2006). The 3 ‘C’ s of chromosome conformation seize: controls, controls, controls. Nat. Methods. (3); 17–21. Fullwood et al., (2009). An oestrogen-receptor-α bound human chromatin interactome. Nature. (462); 58–64. Fullwood & Yijun, (2009). ChIP-based methods for the identification of long-range chromatin interactions. J Cell Biochem. 107(1); 30–39. Johnson et al., (2007). Genome-wide mapping of in vivo protein-DNA interactions. Science. (316); 1497–502. Kuo & Allis, (1999). In-vivo cross-linking and immunoprecipitation for finding out dynamic Protein: DNA associations in a chromatin atmosphere. Methods. (19); 425–33. Li, G., Fullwood, M.J., Xu, H., Mulawadi, F.H., Velkov, S., Vega, V., Ariyaratne, P.N., Mohamed, Y.B., Ooi, H.S., Tennakoon, C., Wei, C.L., Ruan, Y. and Sung, W.Okay. ChIA-PET software for comprehensive chromatin interaction analysis with paired-end tag sequencing. Genome Biol, 11 (2). R22. Maston et al., (2006). Transcriptional Regulatory Elements within the Human Genome. Annu. Rev: Genomics. Hum Genet. (7); 29–59. Polak & Domany, (2006). Alu elements include many binding websites for transcription factors and may play a role in legislation of developmental processes. BMC Genomics. (7); 133. Wei et al., (2006). An international map of p53 transcription-factor binding websites in the human genome. Cell. (124); 207–19.

External hyperlinks

ChIA-PET Genome Browser - This browser is for viewing the data from Fullwood et al. (2009), and features a customized Whole Genome Interaction Viewer which supplies a macroscopic picture of binding sites and interactions together with a complete genome panorama. Retrieved from ""

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