Feminine Beauty

A one-woman show, which seems on the unimaginable ideals of feminine beauty, has been one of the common displays in Asian-American theater, in line with a Mu news liberate. It shall beFeminine Beauty: Radiating Your True Femininity and Unique Beauty. It's true: Women (and particularly feminine ladies who are pleased with themselves) are beautiful. Not just celebrities or beauty icons; all girls. I'm not going to release in to a discussion about beauty is in the eye of the beholder, as a result of it's, and you and I know this.Feminine Beauty Kenneth Clark Snippet view - 1980. Common terms and phrases. accredited accomplished admired Anne vintage appearance artist became body Boucher canvas Louvre canvas National Gallery century classical Collection color whole idea court create decoration depicted detail discovered drawing dress early Egyptian chic instanceTo cheapen beauty is to encourage ugly art and abuse of women's our bodies. Feminine beauty now belongs to advertising, media hype, and pornography. Driven underground, the longing for beauty enslaves men and women who've now not been taught easy methods to grasp its power for godly ends.To develop into a woman manner to develop into anyone who embodies true feminine beauty—whose kindness, grace, polish, positivity and humility emanates from her eyes, her smile and her body language.

What is Feminine Beauty? (Part 1) | The Feminine Woman

Femininity (also known as womanliness or girlishness) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles most often related to women and girls.Although femininity is socially constructed, research indicates that some behaviors thought to be feminine are biologically influenced. To what extent femininity is biologically or socially influenced is matter to debate.Feminine beauty is underappreciated in recent Western tradition. This is easily noticed within the appears to be like of high-fashion models, i.e., ladies having the very best status among female models. High-fashion models tend to possess a couple of masculinized features and are most often skinny, thereby frequently approximating the looks of adolescent boys, ( 1The introduction of artwork was once an act of devotion and the appreciation of feminine beauty a type of prayer. Rossetti's devotion to female beauty in his paintings reflects a an identical obsession in his personal life. In his poetry and portray, Rossetti used the theme of feminine beauty to discover his personal fantasies and conceptions of heaven, salvation, and theSimone de Beauvoir: Resistance to male stereotypes of beauty can imply higher equality. Narrated by way of Harry Shearer. Scripted by way of Nigel Warburton.From the BBC

What is Feminine Beauty? (Part 1) | The Feminine Woman

Feminine Beauty - Kenneth Clark - Google Books

5. Beautiful is the classic method to describe a feminine beauty (a minimum of when talking about other folks), which continuously expresses each outer and interior beauty.Calling an individual of the opposite intercourse beautiful (i.e. you are beautiful) is increasingly suggestive of romantic hobby as a result of it will denote attraction to their whole being.Beauty, Feminine See also Beauty, Sensual. Amoret (Amoretta) standard of female loveliness. [Br. Lit.: Faerie Queene, Brewer Dictionary, 30] Annabel Lee poet's gorgeous cherished. [Am. Lit.: "Annabel Lee" in Portable Poe] Aphrodite (Rom. Venus) archetype of feminine beauty. [Gk. Myth.: Parrinder, 24] Astarte beautiful goddess of fertility and sexualWhen it involves female beauty, the real buttons getting driven in male brains are the ones signaling that a woman is of the right age and in just right enough health to conceive and effectively endure..."A society where feminine beauty is defined not by the human self on genuine intellectual and sentimental grounds, but by a computer software on the grounds of economic interest, is more dead than alive. It is a society of human bodies, not human beings." ― Abhijit Naskar, The Bengal Tigress: A Treatise on Gender EqualityA Biblical View of Feminine Beauty, Carolyn Mahaney and Nicole Whitacre - Read extra Christian girls religious existence, religion, and enlargement.

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IS FEMININE BEAUTY DANGEROUS?Is Feminine Beauty Dangerous A Brief Look at Our Theological Legacy By Karen Lee Thorp Copyright © 1997 Mars Hill Review 9 Fall 1997 · Issue 9: pgs 39-48.

A vivacious lady in her twenties says that when she used to be a child, she sat at the dinner table throughout from a large framed image that reflected her symbol back to her. When her mother noticed her admiring her face in the glass and enjoying along with her hair, she moved the lady to another seat at the desk, completely. "You're so vain!" her mom scolded. The woman heard that rebuke many times throughout her teen years, and while it hurt and angered her, being labeled "vain" did nothing to dampen her enthusiasm for clothes and make-up.

My friend used to be born to be attractive-bone construction and good pores and skin are presents from God. But in addition to genes and an intuition for taste, an excessive amount of her beauty comes from laughing eyes and a beneficiant smile. She is a pleasure now not just to take a look at but to be with, for she shares herself liberally. I doubt any person who is aware of her well would name her vain if vanity manner self-focus, obsession with one's look, a taste for manipulation, or a cold competitiveness to be "the fairest one of all." Her pride drawback doesn't seem much worse than that of most of the people I know.

"Charm is deceptive, and beauty is fleeting" says the proverb,1 and it is true that in two decades my good friend won't turn heads as she does now. Her youthful glow will fade like the wildflowers and leave handiest, I predict, the glow of eternity. But to mention that beauty is fleeting isn't to say it is evil. Why did her mom react as though to revel in one's bodily beauty is sinful?

In researching a e book on appearance, I did my superb to trace down the rest written about it in two thousand years of theology. I found almost not anything. Luther didn't care; Calvin did not remark. Jonathan Edwards was once concerned about creative and herbal beauty, however no longer in the beauty of ladies. John Chrysostom did have reviews, as did Ambrose of Milan, Augustine of Hippo, and William Law. None discovered anything certain to mention about it, even if Ambrose was once gentler toward women than the rest. John Milton, the good Puritan poet, equated Eve's beauty with the corrupt sensuality that brought about her downfall.

I would summarize the tradition into two statements: First, beauty is trivial. To maximum pastors and academics, bodily appearance has no longer gave the impression an important enough non secular factor even to handle. Second, will have to the matter arise in any respect, beauty is unhealthy.

Beauty is trivial, even though it's intertwined with money, sex, power, delight, concern, love, recognize, race, and sophistication. I believe theologians have treated beauty as trivial exactly as it impacts them and the ones round them so powerfully that it makes them uncomfortable. They have no idea what to do with it, so that they pretend it's not relevant and urge anyone who asks to do the same. Like cash, like intercourse, like alcohol, beauty is potent sufficient to be dangerous.

I want to hint the doctrine that beauty is bad along two strains. I'll glance first at theology written by means of males, then at the enjoy of ladies. After examining the resources of this doctrine, I'll assess how smartly it serves us.

Men's Theology

Men have written lots of the critical theology in Christendom, and while we adore to consider these wise men arriving at their insights via study and prayer by myself, we all know that experience affects us all. For the sake of space, I will be aware of western Christianity's maximum dominant philosopher: Augustine.

This North African bishop laid the root of medieval theology, closely influenced Martin Luther and thence the Reformed tradition, and remains to be regarded by way of many western Christians because the premier theologian for the reason that apostle Paul. Most people owe more of our ideals to Augustine than we notice; as an example, he was once the primary to articulate the doctrine of unique sin. His autobiography, The Confessions, has been a best-seller for fifteen hundred years. Brilliant and devout, he deserves our respect even while we critique his legacy in terms of ladies's beauty. What moved him to show that beauty is unhealthy?

The World in 400 A.D.

In the centuries after the apostles' deaths, a number of components affected the way church leaders thought about beauty. First, educated folks had been all taught the body was bad-a nuisance at ideal and an absolute evil at worst. The male intercourse pressure particularly used to be considered a hindrance to rational dwelling. Henry Chadwick, historian of the early church, wrote, "all philosophers with a serious claim to be respected as wise moralists-Plato, Aristotle, the Stoics, the Epicureans-were of one mind in being impressed by . . . the capacity of sexual desire to disrupt and even destroy the most rational of plans and intentions."2

Pagan philosophers disdained, and Christian pastors have been extraordinarily excited about, the best way beauty was worshiped in pagan culture, especially in reference to sacred prostitution. Temples flourished as religious brothels; Corinth's shrine of Aphrodite boasted a thousand sacred prostitutes in its high. It was extraordinarily onerous to wean males off the addiction of visiting prostitutes after the lads professed faith in Christ. Men lived in a curious paradox: believing their our bodies to be evil and their sex drives disrespectable, yet obsessed with physically pleasures. (Experts in addiction say that hatred of 1's frame ceaselessly feeds bodily addictions.)

Further, as Roman society decayed increasingly, sexual fidelity turned into rare among men. To church leaders, who have been themselves males, lust seemed one of the crucial largest threats to males's spiritual health. Unfortunately, many pastors tended responsible ladies for tempting males. The most proficient Greek-speaking preacher of the fourth century, nicknamed Chrysostom ("Goldenmouthed"), told women in the hunt for baptism that makeup added nothing to their beauty of face, but would

damage the beauty of your soul. . . . Especially are you heaping up abundant fireplace for your self by means of thrilling the appearance of younger males, and attracting to your self the eyes of the undisciplined; via making complete adulterers of them, you're bringing their downfall on your own head.3

Undoubtedly, some girls truly have been tempting males on goal. Some wanted the ego gratification of seducing men, others worshiped beauty through believing their happiness in lifestyles depended upon the husband they may catch, and others depended upon their appears for his or her livelihood.

Prostitutes, dancers, courtesans, and concubines represented quite a lot of social ranges of saved ladies. Some legally belonged to a person, while others depended upon males's attentions for his or her income. All of them painted their faces. Decent wealthy ladies also knew their worth was measured via their beauty. Journalist Nancy Baker writes,

It used to be not bizarre for a normal Roman beauty to cover her face with a thick poultice supposed to keep her pores and skin from wrinkling and to wear the concoction continuously, except for when she left the house. Evidently once she used to be married, the Roman girl didn't feel that she had to waste her beauty on her mate alone-outsiders needed to be present sooner than she would divulge her face.4

In a society driven through competition for social standing, noblewomen would do nearly anything to win issues in public.

Ambrose of Milan

Surveying this situation, Bishop Ambrose of Milan told his flock that the frame was once a "tattered garment" for the soul5 and enthusiastically promoted lifelong virginity for women and men as "the one thing that separates us from the beasts."6 Living as he did, surrounded by means of promiscuity, it is not surprising that Ambrose was once the sort of fan of virginity. He was additionally actually grieved for women when he saw them showing themselves like slaves on the market on the marriage market:

Look on the ears pierced with wounds, and pity the neck weighed down with burdens. That the metals are other [from the metal in criminal's chains] does no longer lighten the struggling. . . . It makes no distinction whether or not the frame be loaded with gold or with iron. . . . But how wretched a position, that she who is marriageable is in a species of sale put up because it were to public sale to be bid for, so that he who gives the perfect price purchases her.7

Ambrose essentially thought women would be happier renouncing marriage than pursuing it on the terms to be had within the fourth century. Unfortunately, it was onerous for single girls to get jobs or live safely on their own, so convents turned into the one truly viable alternative to the wedding market. But giving up all hope of children and marital relations was once a price few ladies had been willing to pay with the intention to unfastened themselves from the pressures of self-display.

Augustine's Foibles

Augustine used to be Ambrose's most renowned disciple. A careful pupil of the scriptures, Augustine was additionally influenced by the philosophy of his time and through his non-public experiences. At age fifteen he found out intercourse and spent two promiscuous years driven via youthful hormones. Then on the age of seventeen, like a lot of his peers, he took a concubine-a sort of a second-class mistress-housekeeper who lived with him. Marriage laws of the day required that a man marry inside his category, and for the reason that young Augustine was once planning to upward thrust on the planet, he didn't want to shackle himself to a low-class wife. So for fifteen years he lived faithfully together with his concubine and had a son. Guilt about his attachment to this girl plagued him, for she was once no longer an intellectual and emotional significant other, however merely a concession to his intercourse drive.

At remaining by means of age thirty-two he had established himself, and his mother discovered him an heiress with good connections. He got engaged and sent his concubine away to thrill his prospective in-laws. But shortly thereafter, Augustine made up our minds to abandon his worldly ambitions and commit himself utterly to God. To him, that intended forsaking members of the family with girls as smartly, for he have been bowled over through Ambrose's preaching on the glories of celibacy.

In The Confessions, Augustine claimed he was grieved to lose his concubine because he cherished her dearly, however he by no means named her in his writings, nor discussed her again. The Confessions are full of his shame for having so much sexual need that he couldn't manage to stay celibate until marriage. He by no means expressed guilt for having handled the mother of his son so shamefully as a result of he had most effective carried out what was once normal in his society. He thought himself virtuous for eliminating her (she most likely never saw her son once more), then refraining from marrying the heiress and instead becoming a celibate priest. Any guy of his class would have agreed with him.

Years later, when as a clergyman he confronted a congregation full of males with concubines, he condemned the practice strongly. Unfaithful husbands had been winked at in that society, and it used to be considered decent, even in lots of Christian circles, for a man to stay a concubine along side his actual wife. However, somewhat than just urging these males to be devoted to their better halves, Augustine preached celibacy. His most effective revel in of sexual family members was in the usage of a woman for his personal lust, so he had no idea that it could be holy for a person to enjoy a wife's beauty completely and with respect. When Augustine checked out a beautiful lady he saw only a reminder of his shame. It used to be all however inconceivable for him to peer in her the image of God, a logo of the divine beauty.

In his commentary on John's Gospel he wrote that the image of God is principally in our souls, even if our our bodies do mirror it reasonably.8 He also mentioned our internal beauty displays God's image greater than our outer beauty (though not to the exclusion of our outer beauty). Everything physically or sensual felt to him like a distraction from God, even meals and song. He passionately wanted to look God, and he felt that earthly beauties distracted him from God's beauty. Certainly a super many men round him were completely distracted from God's beauty by earthly beauty, and being the passionate guy he was, he appeared moderation as no possibility for himself. To God, his liked, he wrote essentially the most ardent prose:

Late have I liked you, beauty so previous and so new: past due have I liked you. And see, you have been inside of and I used to be within the exterior world and sought you there, and in my unlovely state I plunged into the ones lovely created stuff you made. . . . The lovely things stored me some distance from you, regardless that if they did not have their lifestyles in you, that they had no lifestyles at all.9

"The lovely things" that had saved Augustine from God had been in the beginning ladies. Generations of men after him have learn his Confessions and identified his experience as their very own. How may a distraction be a mirrored image of God's beauty?

After reading a Greek philosopher named Plotinus, Augustine used to be persuaded that divine beauty shone like mild via all of the stunning things on the planet. Beautiful things made the person who looked at them sad because they were so fleeting, so superficial and fading, while one knew in one's soul that past them used to be the source of all beauty that never faded. Augustine even grew to remember the fact that considering the beauties of nature and the heavens could "be turned into a stairway to the immortal and enduring."10

But whilst Augustine may just believe mountains and stars touching a person's spirit in pure ways, he still could not imagine that the beauty of a girl generally is a window into the realm of God, even though she bore the divine symbol in a way the stars did not at all. Men in his international who replied spiritually to women's beauty have been all doing it in temples to Aphrodite, having sex with sacred prostitutes. That one could reject the idolatry, achieve keep an eye on over the flesh, and then see a lovely lady purely used to be beyond Augustine's imagination-certainly no different males he knew had been doing it. Hence, he could really feel the eager for eternity when he appeared on the stars and let their beauty point him towards God, however the face of girl by no means sparked that sorrowful longing for a greater global; she sparked in him most effective lust, disgrace, and anger at himself and her. He did what we regularly do when some individual activates in us feelings we don't know the way to care for; he came down laborious each on himself for having the sentiments and on women for "causing" them.

Ambrose had rebuked men for blaming women, "whereas all the while it is man himself who seeks in a woman that which tempts him." Ambrose had understood that "The beauty of woman's body is a great work of God, meant to be a sign of that far greater interior beauty, the special clarity and loveliness of her spirit."11

But Augustine had had mixed non-public revel in with girls's inner beauty. During more often than not he lived together with his concubine, his mom also lived with him. She was once so connected to her son that he could not break out her even by transferring from Africa to Italy; she moved with him. The Confessions painting a man who felt accountable for falling wanting his mom's expectations and who each liked and felt embarrassed through her. With a clinging mom and a mistress, it's no surprise that Augustine had a low view of women. "What is the difference?" he wrote to a chum, "whether it is in a wife or a mother, it is still Eve (the temptress) that we must beware of in any woman."12

Augustine's blazing mind enabled him to sort out many profound theological truths, but it did not assist him come to phrases with the feeling a part of him-especially the feeling part of him that answered when he looked at a lovely girl. He knew most effective two responses to his intercourse pressure: give in to it with that shameful concubine, or clamp down on it. He was completely not able to look the image of God in ladies who all gave the look of temptresses, dragging him away from his concentration on God.

Why must we care what Augustine idea? Because beneath his affect, Western artists and theologians have consistently connected beauty to sexual temptation. Finding of their worlds and of their hearts the same temptations, they have got, like him, spoke back by telling girls that to show our beauty is a sin. Any girl who provides her beauty to the arena is "asking for it."

Women's Experience

Women have got that message loud and transparent. We find it nearly inconceivable to domesticate humility about our look; as an alternative, we swing between pleasure and shame. Men's shame over being tempted has grow to be our disgrace for being temptresses.


No one feels this disgrace extra acutely than those that had been sexually molested.

A thirteen-year-old is pressed up in opposition to her locker through a boy much stronger than she and advised he cannot keep his eyes off her. She goes house and rubs her face raw with sandpaper.

A woman who used to be used by her brother as a kid goes to college and shrinks from the eyes of strangers. She adopts saggy clothes, exchanges her touch lenses for glasses, and loses weight until her sticking out shoulder blades pull her skin taut.

A girl abused via her father all through a lot of her childhood leaves home at last and promptly puts on thirty pounds. For the next two decades she struggles to nutrition, but every time she even approaches a gorgeous determine, she loses her nerve and starts to devour compulsively.

A fourth sufferer's strategy to the beauty "problem" is to undertake trousers, Oxford shirts, and an ultra-short haircut as her uniform. She feels safest when disguised as a boy.

All of those girls have concluded that beauty = feminine beauty = the reason for sexual abuse = risk. Only with difficulty can an abuse sufferer come to believe deep in her soul that the cause of her trauma lies in the guy's center, now not in her frame. If everyone from her attacker to history's biggest theologians says her beauty is the motive, why will have to she doubt this equation?

I nonetheless really feel I'm flirting with danger when I pass out in public with naked hands or legs. What if somebody seems to be; and looking, lusts; and lusting, assaults? The chances are slim, however the feeling of threat persists.


For other women, the danger in beauty lies of their perceived loss of it. Girls who imagine themselves ugly (incessantly as a result of their oldsters do not send them the message that they're liked and wonderful) suffer shame as critical as that of any incest sufferer. Graduate pupil Mary Anne Tabor says, "Going to Catholic schools and learning that I was made in the image and likeness of God, and learning that God created all things beautiful, left me in a quandary. At that time I was conditioned to believe I was not beautiful, yet if I was made in the image of God, either God was not beautiful or perhaps I was a mistake."13 Mary Anne's mother hated her darkish Filipino options, and Mary Anne learned to see her appearance as the symbol of her badness.

Just as racial markers may also be resources of disgrace, so can different facets of appearance that a society regards a lower in standing. A woman born into our society with the genes for massive bones and quite a few flesh can expect to be omitted or disdained. People will make merciless remarks to fat women that they would now not dream of directing at racial minorities. One psychologist admitted to me that early in his profession he would go heavy feminine colleagues within the hallway and not using a remark, however would all the time forestall to greet attractive ladies.

Age confers a similar invisibility. Psychologist Sara Halprin writes in Look At My Ugly Face that center age has given her each the ability and the insecurity of invisibility. On the one hand, she reveals it more uncomplicated to head where she pleases as the unobserved observer now that men no longer notice her. On the other hand, invisibility could make her feel devalued. Men appear to be instinctively stressed out to note girls of childbearing age, so older women fade from their radar. Women similar to Halprin who have advanced a powerful id in different areas find this fading slightly disconcerting, but those who were trading on beauty as their chief asset achieve the age of forty and really feel the ground of their worlds drop out.


This disparity between who is noticed and who is not, whose look is valued and whose is not, pits ladies towards every other. Pretty Rachel triumphs over plain Leah, until God turns the tables by giving Leah extra kids. Image experts inform newly promoted women that their subordinates may not admire them unless they spend as much as 15 % of their salaries on clothes and grooming. A 1993 study found that individuals perceived as good-looking had been earning no less than Five p.c greater than the ones classified average-looking.14 With men, money, and appreciate at stake, it's no wonder that girls really feel aggressive towards the rival who stands next to them on the women' room replicate.

Competition breads envy. We carry youngsters on the tale of the getting old queen to whom beauty has been her entire identification, the witch consumed with murderous jealousy toward her step-daughter, the honest Snow White. A girl knows she will be able to lose friends if the boys give her too much more consideration than her friends. Thus, without having beauty exposes a girl to the risk of losing a date, a mate, or a role, having it exposes her to the danger of rejection by means of jealous buddies or superiors.

In order to stay the peace, many women find it more secure to play uglier-than-thou. "I feel so fat," says one eleven-year-old to her friend. "My hair is impossible." "My thighs are the worst." "Your thighs-yours are pencils compared to mine." Only brides have our complete permission to have a good time their beauty. For the remainder of us it could appear, neatly, vain to say, "Don't I look great today?"

On the opposite hand, since the stakes are so high, beauty poses the chance of tempting girls to delight and even idolatry. Isaiah condemned the rich girls of Jerusalem for mincing round of their gowns and jewellery as an alternative of sharing their wealth with the deficient.15 Too many women these days spend far more on clothes, hair, makeup, nails, health club memberships, and equipment than on development the dominion of God. After all, the dominion of God does not be offering them the kind of consideration from men, professional respect, and standing at church that they get from walking into a room browsing like a million dollars.

So What?

Clearly, there are lots of causes to regard beauty as a risk to both men and women, to people who have it or can come up with the money for to shop for it, and to those that don't and can't. The case for adopting nuns' habits is robust. However, what then do we do with the Song of Songs' wild birthday party of the bride's hair, cheeks, temples, eyes, neck, lips, and breasts? What do we do with the nagging sense that we had been made for an international during which our our bodies by no means aged or suffered illness, through which we may well be naked and unashamed as a result of we knew we were beautiful within the eyes of a loving beholder?

In Perelandra, his science fiction novel a couple of not-yet-fallen paradise, C.S. Lewis describes his Eve thus:

There used to be no class in the terrestrial mind which might are compatible her. Opposites met in her and had been fused in a manner for which we don't have any images. One means of hanging it would be to say that neither our sacred nor our profane artwork may make her portrait. Beautiful, naked, shameless, young-she was once clearly a goddess: but then the face, the face so calm that it escaped insipidity by means of the very focus of its mildness, the face that used to be like the unexpected coldness and stillness of a church when we enter it from a sizzling street-that made her a Madonna. The alert, inside silence which seemed out from the ones eyes overawed him; yet at any moment she may chortle like a child, or run like Artemis or dance like a Maenad.16

Every daughter of Eve is aware of deep inside of her that such beauty would have been her birthright had not sin defaced her. Every son of Adam longs for such an Eve. We had been made to mirror an unstained glory, and our eager for that state won't be silenced through power. At preferrred it may be locked in a closet of our souls, the place it may possibly best fester and both deaden or devour us.

A shame-tainted theology may argue that our bodies are bad, but an incarnational theology could have none of that. In refuting the Gnostics, Irenaeus insisted that God made us of earth and spirit "so that man [and woman] should be like God not only in his breath but also in his shaped flesh."17 To consider in Christ's incarnation is to believe it is conceivable for mortal flesh to hold God's symbol.

Shall we meekly cede any other God-created glory to the domain of the devil, at the side of the entirety else in creation that might tempt us? Should we flee from playing mountains and forests because some other people worship nature, or turn our gaze from the celebrities as a result of some observe astrology? No. We impoverish our lives and slender the scope of God's kingdom each time we fall for this scam, but disrespecting human beauty is all of the more tragic because it leads us to disrespect ladies, our physical our bodies, and our sexuality. To cheapen beauty is to inspire ugly art and abuse of girls's bodies. Feminine beauty now belongs to advertising, media hype, and pornography. Driven underground, the longing for beauty enslaves women and men who've now not been taught how one can grasp its energy for godly ends.

If we are going to transfer beyond pleasure and shame to a strong humility referring to our bodies, we must stop being attentive to the voices that let us know beauty is either trivial or bad. It does subject that every lady learns to look herself as stunning and offer her beauty to those round her in appropriate techniques. It issues that we allow every other to place our longings for beauty on the desk where they are able to be taken seriously. It matters that any loss or lack of beauty, from getting old to mastectomy to thighs that our tradition deems "bad," be grieved truthfully and cleanly. Beauty isn't trivial or dangerous. It is strong and vital. It deserves to be on the schedule for any religion community wrestling with the big non secular issues of our time.

1 Proverbs 31:30.

2 See Chadwick's advent to Saint Augustine's Confessions, translated by means of Henry Chadwick (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991), xvii.

3 John Chrysostom, "The True Adornment of Women," Baptismal Instructions, First Instruction, Article 37 (Westminster, Md.: The Newman Press), 38.

4 Nancy Baker, The Beauty Trap (New York: Franklin Watts, 1984), 14.

5 Ambrose, Hexameron, vi, 7,42, quoted in Peter Brown, Augustine of Hippo (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1967), 84.

6 Ambrose, quoted in Brown, 83.

7 Ambrose, "To the Virgins," chapter 10, paragraphs 55-56, Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, Volume X, edited by way of Philip Schaff and Henry Wace (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1955), 372.

8 Augustine, Commentary at the Gospel of John, 23:10.

9 Augustine, Confessions, X.xxvii (38), translated by Henry Chadwick, 201.

10 Augustine, On the True Religion, 54, quoted in Hans Urs Von Balthasar, The Glory of the Lord, volume 2, Studies in Theological Style: Clerical Styles, translated through Andrew Louth, Francis McDonagh, and Brian McNeil C.R.V., edited by John Riches (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1984), 100. Compare Confessions, X.vi (9), 183.

11 Thomas Merton, The Ways of the Christian Mystics, (Boston: Shambhala, 1961, 1993), 64. Merton is paraphrasing Ambrose's sermon, "On the Education of a Virgin."

12 Augustine, Letters 243,10, quoted in Brown, 63.

13 Mary Anne Tabor, "Being Beautiful: A Study on the Psychology of Beauty Based on Experiences of People Who Work in the Beauty Business" (grasp's thesis, Sonoma State University, 1990), 79.

14 Daniel S. Hamermesh and Jeff E. Biddle, "Beauty and the Labor Market," National Bureau of Economic Research, November 1993.

15 Isaiah 3:16-24.

16 C. S Lewis, Perelandra (New York: Macmillan, 1944, 1968), p. 64.

17 Irenaeus, 74.

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